Magic Quadrant for Managed Security Services, Worldwide

Magic Quadrant for Managed Security Services, Worldwide

Published 2 May 2019 – ID G00354867 – 73 min read

Managed security services is a market that is diversifying to meet the demands of a wide range of buyers. Security and risk management leaders should identify providers best aligned to their requirements, security maturity, and organization’s vertical, size, and geographic footprint.

Market Definition/Description

Gartner defines managed security services (MSSs) as:
  • The remote 24/7 monitoring of security events and security-related data sources
  • The administration and management of IT security technologies
  • The delivery of security operation capabilities via shared services from remote security operations centers (SOCs), not through on-site personnel nor remote services delivered on a one-to-one basis to a single customer
The core service of most MSS providers (MSSPs) are 24/7 security event monitoring and response for threat detection use cases, and reporting for compliance use cases across a technology-agnostic range of log event and data sources.
In addition to security event monitoring and response services, MSSPs’ portfolios usually include one or more of the following managed services, in addition to other services that may be specific to the MSSP’s core market (e.g., IT outsourcing or telecommunications):
  • Security technology administration and management of firewalls, unified threat management (UTM), intrusion detection and prevention system (IDPS), endpoint protection platform (EPP), endpoint detection and response (EDR), secure web gateway (SWG) and secure email gateway (SEG)
  • Incident response services (both remote and on-site)
  • Vulnerability assessment and managed vulnerability management services (e.g., scanning, analysis and recommendations/remediation)
  • Threat intelligence services (e.g., machine-readable threat intelligence feeds, customer-specific dark web and social media monitoring)
  • Managed detection and response (MDR) services
MSSPs increasingly offer a wider and more varied set of services; however, Gartner clients are primarily interested in contracting MSSPs for 24/7 remote security event monitoring and response services. They are seeking to address threat detection use cases and to add additional capabilities to fill gaps in their security controls and capabilities as needed (e.g., incident response or vulnerability management). Remote technology administration and management, while offered by many MSSPs, is highly commoditized now and increasingly less important to Gartner clients interested in MSSs. Meeting compliance requirements is also rarely mentioned outside of some specific verticals and regions. As Gartner clients pursue cloud-oriented and cloud-first approaches, the scope of security monitoring service requirements is also expanding. It includes monitoring of cloud-delivered services, both SaaS and IaaS, as well as operational technology (e.g., ICS/SCADA) environments and Internet of Things (IoT) devices. This reflects the expansion of security event monitoring beyond the confines of an MSS buyer’s on-premises perimeter.

Magic Quadrant

Figure 1. Magic Quadrant for Managed Security Services, Worldwide

Source: Gartner (May 2019)



Vendor Strengths and Cautions

Alert Logic

Alert Logic, based in Houston, Texas with primary offices in Austin, Texas, London and Cardiff, U.K., Cali, Colombia, and Tokyo, provides a range of services delivered from 24/7 SOCs in Houston and Cardiff. Alert Logic’s footprint and marketing is primarily focused on North America and Europe, but it has a primary partner in Japan, and a variety if channel partners for Asia/Pacific and Latin America.
Alert Logic’s services are focused around 24/7 security event monitoring, threat detection and response, and vulnerability management of public and private cloud services (i.e., IaaS), as well as on-premises and hybrid environments. They market this approach as “SIEMless Threat Management.” Three tiers of services are available — Essentials, Professional and Enterprise — that are aimed at a range of buyers, from midsize enterprises to large, global enterprises. Additional services include ActiveWatch Enterprise and a managed web application firewall (WAF). Alert Logic has a threat research and intelligence team for feeding proprietary threat intelligence to its monitoring platform. Threat hunting as a service is an option, and professional services are available as needed to assist with security assessments, service implementation and onboarding.
MDR-type services are provided by Alert Logic using its proprietary technologies for threat prevention, detection and response, e.g., network intrusion detection, log monitoring and web application firewall. Alert Logic’s delivery platform uses Amazon Web Services (AWS), leveraging specific AWS Regions to support data residency requirements.
Alert Logic is a good shortlist candidate for buyers who are underinvested and under-resourced in key security operations capabilities like 24/7 security event monitoring and response, and vulnerability management. It is also a good candidate for companies that are mature but need to augment their existing capabilities with specific threat detection and response services. Buyers who need to support multiple cloud or hybrid environments sourced with a single provider should also consider Alert Logic.

  • Alert Logic’s services focus on the core security services, e.g., asset and vulnerability management, 24/7 security monitoring and response delivered through an easy-to-use and easy-to-navigate portal.
  • Buyers heavily invested in, or planning to migrate to, AWS and Microsoft Azure, especially those who leverage containers within IaaS, will benefit from Alert Logic’s asset and vulnerability assessment technology. It can scan traditional assets, but also support container scanning, which is a differentiator in the MSS market. In addition, AWS buyers will benefit from Alert Logic’s ability to identify configuration-based exposures.
  • Alert Logic has extensive support for providing security services for AWS and Azure customers, including asset management, vulnerability management including container vulnerability assessment, and 24/7 threat monitoring, detection and response. Alert Logic was a launch partner for AWS’ Security Hub service.
  • The tiered pricing model is easy to understand and offers an upgrade path for buyers who want to start with basic security hygiene services and grow into the security monitoring and response services. Pricing is primarily based on nodes monitored across the customer’s environment, with separate monthly recurring pricing for ActiveWatch Enterprise and managed web application firewall. Customers can purchase Alert Logic services directly from a network of reseller partners and via the AWS Marketplace.
  • Alert Logic receives higher-than-average customer reference scores for overall experience, integration and onboarding, ongoing service and support, and product capabilities. Customers willing to recommend Alert Logic to others and to renew their services are also rated positive.

  • Alert Logic’s incident response capability currently supports a limited set of response actions, like threat investigation and blocking response actions via Alert Logic’s proprietary technology stack at the network and web app layers. Support for endpoint protection (and associated response actions) was announced as beta in early March 2019 (and not assessed as part of this research), with general availability in 2Q19. Buyers looking for a service provider to also provide major incident response services via an optional retainer will need to leverage a third party via Alert Logic’s partner network.
  • Executives looking for a real-time view of the service can leverage the risk-oriented executive dashboard and reports available via the portal. However, buyers who require heavier service management, such as access to real-time SLAs or monthly reports, will need to plan for more involvement with Alert Logic as many of these deliverables are not self-service and are only produced on demand when requested.
  • Security monitoring for SaaS is currently limited to Microsoft Office 365 and Salesforce.
  • Out-of-the-box compliance reporting options are currently limited to Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) and Center for Internet Security (CIS) config benchmarks. Reporting against specific compliance regimes is available by using its log search function along with guided support documents provided by Alert Logic. Additional out-of-the-box compliance reports are on the roadmap to be added.


AT&T is a global telecommunications and IT services provider that offers a range of security device management, and security monitoring and response services for large enterprises, midsize businesses and governments. AT&T is headquartered in the U.S. (Dallas), with regional offices in the U.K. (London) and Hong Kong. It delivers managed security services from three 24/7 SOCs (one Europe-based, one Asia/Pacific-based and one U.S.-based), and four SOCs operating in a “follow the sun” model to provide 24/7 support during local business hours (two in the Asia/Pacific region, two in North America). SOCs are English-speaking, and there is a translation service available for other languages.
On 22 August 2018, AT&T completed the acquisition of AlienVault, a vendor with security information and event management (SIEM), threat intelligence, vulnerability assessment, EDR and network intrusion prevention system (IPS) capabilities. On 26 February 2019, a business unit called AT&T Cybersecurity was created that merges AlienVault’s technology and services, AT&T Cybersecurity Consulting and AT&T Managed Security Services. At the time of Gartner’s research for this Magic Quadrant, AT&T has been actively integrating the AlienVault acquisition into its MSS business and moving customers from the legacy AT&T Threat Manager platform to AlienVault Unified Security Management (USM) Anywhere. Threat Manager customers are now provided a managed threat detection service via the AlienVault USM web interface supported by AT&T security experts in its SOCs.
AT&T’s Threat Manager service is priced by events per day (EPD), with other network-based services priced based on bandwidth. AT&T offers device management through discrete managed security offerings for network security, data and application security, and mobile and endpoint security. Device management and workflow are handled through the AT&T Business Center portal. Threat intelligence is now offered through AT&T Alien Labs, an in-house threat intelligence center than combines AlienVault’s Open Threat Exchange (OTX) and AT&T’s visibility into its network. Threat Manager provides data retention for nine locations around the world to meet data localization requirements (in the U.S., Ireland, Germany, Japan, Australia, the U.K., Canada, India and Brazil). Other AT&T MSS offerings provide additional flexibility including on-premises storage. In 2018, in addition to the acquisition of AlienVault, AT&T introduced monitoring for AWS and Azure environments, self-service capabilities for customers of firewall management, and faster deployment of sensors for MSS delivery.
AT&T should be considered by organizations with a preference for telecommunications and security services sourced from a single provider, and those that require extensive correlation rule and customization that can be supported by the AlienVault USM platform.

  • AT&T, in addition to the assets and capabilities acquired with AlienVault, also has a sizable portfolio of managed security services organized according to buyer need — assessing and planning, detection and protection, and response and recover.
  • AT&T has expanded its threat intelligence beyond the insight captured via its visibility from its IP connections with the addition of AlienVault (now AT&T Alien Labs OTX) and the large threat-intelligence-sharing community around OTX.
  • As might be expected from a SIEM console experience, the reporting and event handling are strong elements of the Threat Manager portal if customers have the resources and skills to take advantage of them.
  • AT&T has good visibility with Gartner clients considering discrete MSSs. AlienVault has good visibility as a SIEM product with midsize and smaller enterprises.

  • At the time of this research, there is a lack of clarity around aspects of the AlienVault acquisition. AT&T has moved rapidly to create a unified business unit and migrate customers to AlienVault USM, but it is too early to tell how customers will react to the new platform (based on a SIEM solution interface). Additionally, AlienVault USM features a large ecosystem of MSSPs leveraging USM Anywhere and USM Appliance. It is not clear how AT&T will rationalize its own Threat Manager business alongside this existing ecosystem of now potentially competitive MSSPs.
  • AlienVault is a full-featured SIEM that requires a level of training and expertise to navigate and use, and may not appeal to MSS customers that are looking for a less complicated portal experience. Additionally, customers who have been transitioned to the AlienVault USM Anywhere portal must use a separate portal to address device management functions. AT&T has indicated unifying the portals is on its roadmap.
  • AT&T’s MSS business is heavily skewed to the North American market, with far fewer customers in the Europe and the Asia/Pacific markets. Buyers requiring a strong presence in these regions should closely evaluate AT&T’s coverage.
  • Customers offered mixed marks for satisfaction with AT&T MSSs, with many below the average compared to its competition. Overall experience and integration marks were lower than the competition, while evaluation and contracting, and service and support were above average.


Atos is an IT services-focused organization delivering digital services globally with 14 24/7 SOCs across Asia/Pacific, Europe and North America. Atos is headquartered near Paris, with regional offices in the U.S. (Purchase, New York) and Singapore. Atos provides a wide range of consulting, system integration, managed services and other offerings alongside its managed security service portfolio.
In addition to security event monitoring and response services, Atos also offers incident response (both remote, leveraging CrowdStrike among other EDR vendors, and on-premises, as required), and vulnerability assessment and vulnerability management services. An internal function provides threat intelligence capabilities for use across its services. Advanced threat detection is available as part of Atos’ Prescriptive Security SOC offering using Atos’ proprietary Codex solution as well as Interset user and entity behavioral analytics (UEBA). In addition, IT/OT/IoT SOC services are also available. Atos has a strong sales and implementation function, deployed globally and without the use of channel partners. Customized requirements from customers drive implementation time scales of up to six months, which is a process that involves chargeable consultancy and a specialized team. Atos offers SLAs that are in line with market norms. The tiered service model, which is incremental, offers a low-cost Basic tier, as well as the Standard and Premium service tiers with service options and “bolt on” advanced packages to suit specific customer requirements.
Atos is a good shortlist candidate for large European and U.S.-based multinational corporations that have complex or custom requirements across a wide sphere of security technology where threat detection and response, and vulnerability management services are key.

  • Atos has a range of experience in transformational digital business projects within large enterprises, driven by its wider range of IT services engagements.
  • Atos has a well-established model for managing security in IoT-/OT-based environments with existing partnerships with large manufacturers in the space.
  • Atos’ security analysts maintain a wide range of operations-focused security qualifications.
  • Atos supports a wide range of commercial security technologies with complementary services to manage its outputs and configuration and to promote prevention of threats.
  • Atos has introduced a degree of flexibility in its pricing structures enabling the delivery of SaaS-aligned pay-per-use operational models.

  • Atos focuses on large multinational organizations and does not target its services to midsize enterprises; service pricing caters best for the higher levels of consumption associated with larger organizations.
  • Atos’ MSS portal is focused on audit and service management functions, with customer-facing operational requirements directly met by the commercial SIEM product’s own interface.
  • Atos has limited support for SaaS applications, developing and supporting functions for widely used applications on a case-by-case basis. Buyers that plan to migrate services to the cloud should consult with Atos to ensure their security monitoring requirements can be met.
  • Atos customers report satisfaction with implementation stages, but a lack of ongoing maintenance of functions, through-life evolution and innovation in service delivery.
  • Atos is rarely mentioned by Gartner clients interested in MSSs.

BAE Systems

BAE Systems offers a range of managed security services and cybersecurity services, including security event monitoring, managed detection and response, threat intelligence, incident response and vulnerability management, in addition to advisory and other security solutions. BAE Systems’ headquarters are located in Farnborough, U.K., with regional offices in Guilford, U.K., Boston, Massachusetts and Singapore, as well as Sydney and Dubai. Services are delivered via four 24/7 SOCs located in the U.S., U.K. and Philippines.
The BAE Systems offerings focused on security event monitoring and response are Complete Security Monitoring (CSM) and Managed Detection and Response (MDR). Additional services include Vulnerability Management (positioned for enterprise customers) and Vulnerability Scanning Service (positioned to small and midsize business [SMB] customers), Incident Response, and Threat Intelligence. BAE Systems Security Management Console is its portal that provides customers with a single location for visibility and interaction to BAE Systems’ various services.
In the past 12 months, the portal has seen improvements focused on role-based access control (RBAC) and self-service features, log search, device health and management, and firewall policy management (for managed UTM customers). Data residency is addressed through a combination of in-country data centers and Azure regions depending on where the customer’s data needs to be stored.
MSS buyers that are looking for a single provider that can offer MSS combined with MDR should consider BAE Systems, particularly less mature buyers that also require services for other core security operations capabilities. More mature buyers, especially those in the banking, financial and insurance sectors, as well as the government sector, who are looking to augment their internal capabilities with advanced threat detection and response should also consider BAE Systems.

  • BAE Systems’ investments in its platform for advanced analytics, its threat intelligence capabilities and its use of orchestration and automation technologies will appeal to buyers looking for a provider that can address advanced threat detection use cases tailored to their requirements and processes.
  • BAE Systems’ can support a range of response activities, particularly when the MDR service is combined with its incident response retainer.
  • Threat hunting is now embedded as part of BAE Systems’ CSM and MDR service offerings.
  • Customers generally give BAE Systems slightly higher-than-average marks across general satisfaction, product satisfaction, and value for services; however, marks for evaluation and contracting were more mixed.

  • Vulnerability assessment and management services are not yet standardized. Vulnerability management services are offered through Outpost24, whereas vulnerability scanning is offered through Rapid7.
  • Most BAE Systems customers are in North America and Europe. BAE Systems has little footprint in other markets except where its incident response and threat intelligence services are consumed.
  • BAE Systems struggles to market itself effectively considering the investment it has made in its MSS infrastructure (e.g., delivery platform and proprietary threat detection technologies).
  • The Security Management Console offers more-limited capabilities for investigating and responding to incidents and for compliance reporting than leading competitor portals.


Capgemini is headquartered in Paris and has large regional offices in Mumbai, London and New York, as well as locations in 40 other countries. Capgemini provides a range of managed security services as part of its Cybersecurity Services business operating under the Capgemini and Sogeti brands. It has 10 SOCs internationally across Asia, North America and Europe that are leveraged to deliver services, with an eleventh due to open this year in Melbourne, Australia.
Capgemini offers a range of MSSs with security event monitoring and response powered by IBM QRadar and IBM Resilient, and vulnerability management that ranges from assessment only through to remediation for IT outsourcing (ITO) customers. Incident response is available via remote or dedicated, on-site resources. Threat intelligence is provided via an internal team that mines customer data for threats, which is supplemented with third-party threat intelligence. Capgemini has a global sales force with smaller teams of dedicated security sales professionals in all major regions providing support to the security-led areas of wider contracts. The onboarding process can be augmented with consulting services depending on service and technology requirements. Capgemini offer basic SLAs and operates service tiers of Bronze, Silver and Gold, which provide incremental levels of threat detection capabilities with an option to define tailored requirements outside of those tiers.
In the past 12 months, Capgemini has evolved its MSS business, coordinating the Capgemini and Sogeti businesses and creating a more unified go-to-market approach. On 21 February 2019, Capgemini announced the closing of the acquisition of Leidos Cyber, which extended its global footprint and services (e.g., OT and IoT security).
Capgemini is a good shortlist candidate for large global organizations that require flexibility and customization at scale in the deployment, integration and management of security technologies. Those that have localized and complex security requirements with driving factors such as data residency should also consider Capgemini.

  • Capgemini’s portal has been improved to offer a better user experience with a specific focus on customer interaction, reporting and SLA-aligned metrics.
  • Capgemini introduced the concept of the “golden hour” as a framework for providing MDR-like capabilities previously agreed with the customer. This construct allows SOC analysts to take predefined actions to contain or disrupt a threat — such as blocking threats on firewalls, SWG, SEG and user account suspension — within an hour of the threat being detected.
  • Capgemini offers an established set of IoT/OT offerings predominantly in the manufacturing, automotive and energy sectors.
  • Capgemini is able to support a wide range of commercial security solutions.

  • The roadmap for Capgemini lags many competitors, but it is evolving as Capgemini works to add offerings and capabilities in line with the market. This includes expanding capabilities to cover cloud services (IaaS, SaaS and PaaS), as well as deploying security orchestration, analytics and reporting (SOAR) technologies in its SOCs. The integration of Leidos and how it fits into the roadmap is unclear at this time.
  • Capgemini has a standard, but basic, set of SLAs for response and remediation in comparison with the market. These are considered a starting point for negotiating custom SLAs tailored to individual customers and their environments. Buyers will need to determine whether they need custom SLAs, and that these are aligned against their requirements and budgets.
  • Capgemini has limited visibility with Gartner clients for MSS-specific deals. Capgemini’s MSS deals are often included as part of end-to-end cybersecurity outsourcing or digital transformation initiatives.
  • Capgemini customers are generally satisfied with the service, delivery and product, but its overall ratings were below average compared to the competition.


CenturyLink is a telecommunications and public and private cloud service provider based in Monroe, Louisiana. It has regional offices in Singapore, London and Buenos Aires, Argentina. CenturyLink has eight SOCs including four in the U.S., and one each in London, Singapore, Buenos Aires, and India (Bangalore). The SOCs operate in a blended 24/7 and follow-the-sun model. There are dedicated North American and U.K. SOCs to support national government contracts. CenturyLink provides a range of services, with security event monitoring and response, as well as technology management services across a broad range of network and host-based security solutions. Additional services include Vulnerability & Risk Monitoring that leverages RiskSense and Qualys to provide vulnerability assessment and management, and threat intelligence services supported by the recently branded Black Lotus Labs team. Incident response services, including on-premises support, are available via a retainer.
CenturyLink uses a combination of proprietary implementations of big data platforms, commercial products and other tools. Several service tiers are available, from basic endpoint security management to advanced threat-oriented capabilities. Some data residency and staff citizenship requirements can be met with in-region SOCs and data storage. The pricing model for MSSs depends on the services contracted and includes set monthly recurring or usage-based fees; for example, threat monitoring is based on GB-per-day data.
In 2018, CenturyLink completed the integration with Level 3, including the MSS business. In January 2019, CenturyLink’s expansion into Singapore was completed with the opening of its eighth SOC. Additionally, the vendor introduced a mobile app to supplement its MSS portal, added coverage for public cloud monitoring, and improved its log monitoring services, which allowed it to deliver cost reductions to customers. It also introduced several service and pricing options for small and midsize customers.
Existing CenturyLink network services customers, from midsize to very large enterprises, IaaS and cloud service customers, as well as organizations with global service requirements, should consider CenturyLink for MSSs.

  • CenturyLink has introduced several options that should appeal to smaller organizations, with service tiers that include basic monitoring for small organizations and no-retainer-needed incident response services to managed firewall customers.
  • CenturyLink now also offers free log ingestion of 10 Gb per day and has reduced the price of log ingestion across all levels.
  • The MSS portal provides strong role-based controls, including fine-grained role mapping and access for users. Customization of dashboards is also better than typically available from other vendors.
  • CenturyLink provides extensive monitoring coverage for SaaS applications with the Cloud Security Monitoring service.
  • Reference customers give CenturyLink generally positive marks.

  • Support for advanced threat detection technologies is not uniform across network, sandbox and endpoint. Network traffic analytics via the CenturyLink network backbone is available globally, but payload analysis is not. Forensics on endpoint is available in the U.S.; packet data forensics is still in the planning stage.
  • MDR-style services are not as mature as those available from competitors. For example, managed EDR services are available only in the U.S. Other services are available as customer-specific engagements.
  • Potential customers who require access to raw log data via the MSS portal should validate that the very basic capabilities of the CenturyLink portal will meet their needs. The portal still has limited features for capturing and using assets and their business value, and does not support integrations to enable managing vulnerability scans or viewing scan results.
  • CenturyLink has low visibility with Gartner clients for stand-alone MSS deals.


Fujitsu, headquartered in Japan, has 24/7 SOCs in Japan, the U.S., Singapore and the U.K., in addition to a few non-24/7 SOCs in other countries (Finland, Germany and the U.S.). Fujitsu’s marketing and footprint for MSSs are primarily in Japan and Europe, with some focus on the North American and Australian markets.
Fujitsu’s services are focused on a standard set of managed security services, with security event monitoring and response services available either through its multitenant LogRhythm platform or deployed on customer premises as required. Fujitsu offers a number of discrete MSS offerings centered on management of various security technologies, like network and web application firewall, intrusion detection system (IDS), cloud access security broker (CASB), EDR, data loss prevention (DLP), and identity and access management (IAM). Vulnerability assessment and management services are available using a variety of popular vulnerability assessment solutions. Fujitsu’s in-house Cyber Threat Intelligence (CTI) service leverages a range of feeds — open source, commercial and third party — that are used as part of its security event monitoring service. It is available as a stand-alone offering. Incident response services are offered to complement the MSS offering, and are offered in blocks of 10 days or via a daily rate.
Fujitsu’s delivery platform is hosted in Fujitsu data centers. Fujitsu has introduced a new portal that provides a more traditional MSS experience compared to the previous portal that was a direct interface into the LogRhythm management console for security event monitoring services. Fujitsu offers 365-day raw log and event retention. Raw logs are archived after 10 days, but retrievable via request to Fujitsu’s SOC.
Buyers that are looking for flexible service delivery and high-touch technology management services should consider Fujitsu. Organizations purchasing other IT or security services from Fujitsu should consider including it in their MSS procurement shortlists.

  • Fujitsu has strong partnerships with security technology vendors that allow it to wrap a number of additional services around its security event monitoring and response service.
  • The vendor has a strong market presence and reputation in Japan, with good traction among large enterprises. Its presence in Europe is also strong.
  • Fujitsu’s flexible service delivery options appeal to large organizations that are heavy on outsourcing most of their security capabilities.
  • Fujitsu’s customers give average marks for value and above average for sales professionalism, contract negotiations, and integration and deployment.

  • Fujitsu’s offerings in emerging areas such as managed detection and response, and security monitoring of public cloud environments are weaker than most competition. For example, Fujitsu collects telemetry from AWS and Azure through log collectors that leverage native APIs, rather than direct API integration from Fujitsu’s platform and the cloud service providers.
  • The Fujitsu MSS portal, while improved over the past 12 months, is basic and offers capabilities for creating and responding to service requests and viewing incidents. Key capabilities such as scheduling of vulnerability scans, allowing users to customize reporting and dashboards, and viewing of threat intelligence feeds are not available though.
  • Real-time access to raw logs for 10 days is standard, but custom requirements for longer periods can be agreed on a per-customer basis. Fujitsu indicates access to retained logs older than 10 days may take up to five days to complete depending on the size and complexity of the retrieval request.
  • Fujitsu is rarely seen in Gartner client inquiries for discrete MSS procurement due to its low brand recognition as an MSSP.


IBM, headquartered in Armonk, New York, is both a security technology and service provider with a range of managed security and other complementary services via a global network of 24/7 SOCs. IBM has regional MSS offices in the U.S. (Cambridge, Massachusetts and Atlanta, Georgia), and in every major region around the world. IBM has five global, 24/7 SOCs, branded as X-Force Command Centers, and four non-24/7 SOCs.
IBM’s MSS offerings are focused on security event monitoring leveraging its QRadar SIEM platform, which provides unified monitoring across the customer base. QRadar form factors available to customers include shared multitenant (the default), on-premises, SaaS SIEM, or a hybrid. Other SIEM platforms (e.g., Splunk or ArcSight) can also be supported as required. Complementary MSSs from IBM include vulnerability assessment and vulnerability management through the IBM X-Force Red team, and incident response retainers, incident preparation, and threat intelligence services provided as part of the unified IBM X-Force Incident Response and Intelligence Services (IRIS). A range of advisory and professional services are also available. IBM recently introduced its X-Force Threat Management (XFTM) service that provides an integrated threat monitoring, detection and response service that leverages SIEM (primarily QRadar, but others are supported as needed), SOAR (via IBM Resilient) and third-party EDR tools. Support for data residency requirements can be addressed using the form factors described previously.
In the past 12 months, IBM introduced a mobile app to complement its web-based portal. It also improved the analytic and operational capabilities in its delivery platform and operations through the use of proprietary analytics, QRadar User Behavior Analytics (UBA) and QRadar Advisor with Watson (formerly Watson for Cyber Security), and IBM Resilient.
IBM should be a shortlist candidate for larger enterprises that are looking for a full-featured MSS with a global footprint of SOCs that can support a variety of local languages as required. Existing IBM service customers should also consider IBM MSS for any shortlists.

  • IBM offers a strong set of security event monitoring services and related offerings underpinned by the IBM Security technology portfolio. The flexibility afforded by IBM QRadar will appeal to enterprise buyers who are adopting or moving to the cloud.
  • IBM has better aligned its complementary services for threat intelligence, incident response and threat hunting among other services by combining them into the IRIS team.
  • The introduction of SOAR and advanced features within the QRadar platform for use by the IBM X-Force Security Centers should yield improved threat detection, as well as faster detection and response times.
  • IBM’s visibility with Gartner customers and MSSP buyers is oriented toward large enterprises. IBM has good visibility in the MSS market.

  • IBM’s introduction of a packaged MDR-like service in X-Force Threat Management is a good first step toward creating bundled offerings, but visibility in the marketplace and with Gartner clients has been minimal. Some partnerships, such as integration with Fortinet and Carbon Black have been announced, but additional partnerships have been limited.
  • IBM’s Virtual Security Operations Center Portal, while full featured, is starting to lag the competition from a user experience perspective. Customer feedback about the portal is mixed. IBM is promoting use of its mobile app as an alternative means of using the portal.
  • Buyers should carefully analyze the technology approach recommended to deliver MSSs (e.g., shared or dedicated QRadar, whether on-premises or hosted) to ensure that the approach is compatible with their IT environments, architectures and requirements.
  • IBM’s customer feedback across the board was below average compared to the competition.


NTT Security is the specialized managed security service company of the NTT Group. NTT is headquartered in Tokyo, with regional headquarters for North America, Europe and the Asia/Pacific regions. NTT operates 10 SOCs globally across the Asia/Pacific, European and North American regions. In August 2018, NTT Corporation announced a new holding company structure that will integrate NTT Communications, Dimension Data, and NTT Security into a new global business later in 2019. NTT DATA will continue as a stand-alone, listed company that collaborates with NTT.
NTT’s operating model utilizes the group companies to sell and manage relationships for clients who are delivered managed security services centrally via NTT Security. NTT MSSs provide delivery of all threat detection services (Threat Detection Enhanced and Enterprise Security Monitoring), as well as services for technology management and vulnerability assessment in all major regions. NTT offers a single service management interface to customers that provides security incident communications and case management. NTT offers incident response services that include enhanced response to threats where firewall management is performed by NTT Security and/or managed EDR is consumed by the customer. An incident response retainer, along with incident response planning and forensic services, is also available. NTT has an in-house Global Threat Intelligence Center providing internally consumed threat intelligence for MSSs, as well as stand-alone offerings like its Reputational Threat Services.
NTT’s security offerings focus on different levels of service interaction defined by the criticality of incidents as opposed to providing defined service tiers. Customers will receive high levels of analyst interaction on critical events and electronic notification for all others.
In the past 12 months, NTT has implemented its unified portal leveraging ServiceNow, integrated with the main service desk functions across NTT, and announced strategic partnerships with Symantec to provide new services like Web Security as a Service (WSaaS).
NTT appeals to larger enterprises who have purchased separate IT and networking services from other NTT group companies and those who are completing wider digital transformation projects or have specific, complex requirements that will be served across the portfolio of NTT Group companies.

  • NTT can serve a wide range of industries/verticals across geographies due to the global presence of NTT Group companies.
  • NTT’s strategy involves investing in security technology, as evidenced by its acquisition of WhiteHat Security, as well as an industry-aligned commitment to continue research and development of its services portfolio and capabilities, like advanced analytics.
  • NTT has moderate visibility with Gartner clients looking for discrete MSSs.
  • NTT’s customers provide above-average marks for several ratings like overall experience, evaluation and contract negotiations, integration and deployment, and overall service and product capabilities.

  • NTT Security is an operational unit that utilizes the NTT Group companies to sell and market its delivered services. This approach has created confusion for some Gartner clients when renewing existing MSS agreements that were originally purchased from entities prior to the formation of NTT Security (e.g., Solutionary or NTT Com Security). Postrestructuring, this concern may abate as NTT becomes more unified without individual operating companies. Clients should monitor the situation as it progresses.
  • The NTT portal is now primarily powered by ServiceNow, which provides a basic ServiceNow-style experience for many functions, like case management and ticketing; however, other legacy portals are used to provide an interface into features like log management and portal user management. APIs are available to integrate into customer environments, like case management solutions, as required.
  • NTT Security’s managed EDR offering is a work in progress. NTT Security currently supports FireEye, which will expand to include Carbon Black and CounterTack, which was previously announced as a partnership in November 2017.


Secureworks, is headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia, with offices in London, Sydney, Tokyo and Edinburgh, Scotland. It provides a range of security event monitoring and response services, in addition to technology management, vulnerability assessment and management, threat intelligence, managed detection and response, incident response (via retainer), and consulting services. MSSs are delivered from three 24/7 SOCs in the U.S. (Atlanta; Chicago; and Providence, Rhode Island); one 24/7 SOC in Kawasaki, Japan, one SOC in Edinburgh, Scotland and one in Hyderabad, India. The SOCs are supported by a center of excellence in Romania.
MSS delivery is through Secureworks’ proprietary Counter Threat Platform (CTP) that provides data collection and management, analysis, and the portal. Secureworks also has premises-based physical and virtual appliances to support log aggregation/transmission and network security monitoring. The Secureworks Client Portal provides access to services for customers. Secureworks offers customers seeking EDR services the option of fully managed services using the Red Cloak agent, or monitored EDR for Carbon Black and CrowdStrike. An additional service for proactive threat hunting is available at an hourly rate or for customers using the Red Cloak agent via Advanced Endpoint Threat Detection Elite with Active Threat Hunting. There is an add-on service for malware detection delivered in partnership with Lastline. The Secureworks Counter Threat Unit (CTU) threat research and development team provides threat intelligence to support a variety of MSS offerings, as well as stand-alone threat intelligence services. MSS pricing is based on the number and type of event sources in scope for monitoring or management. Secureworks recently introduced additional pricing models for service bundles, such as its MDR service bundle that is priced by number of employees in the buyer’s organization.
In 2018, Secureworks introduced the ability for customers to easily link their ServiceNow with the Secureworks portal, and additional APIs enable customers to integrate MSSs with the customers’ security operations infrastructure. Self-service provisioning gives customers control over which devices to bring into the scope of MSS monitoring. Secureworks also introduced its Security Maturity Model to help customers by measuring and monitoring improvements in customers’ security operations capabilities.
Secureworks should be considered by midsize through to global enterprise organizations seeking an established MSS with a consistent, shared delivery approach that offers additional complementary security operations capabilities delivered as a service.

  • Secureworks offers an incident response retainer that is popular with buyers, which provides proactive as well as remote and on-site reactive response services.
  • Secureworks’ bundling of existing services to form its MDR offering, with a simpler pricing structure based on employees and assets, has gained initial traction with Gartner clients.
  • Security orchestration and automation has been integrated into the Counter Threat Platform for SOC analysts and operations, with continued expansion of capabilities, both internal and customer facing planned over the next year.
  • Secureworks has very high visibility with Gartner clients, and is frequently included in competitive MSS deals by North America-based midsize and enterprise buyers. It also has good visibility with U.K. buyers.
  • Gartner customers largely give strong positive feedback for Secureworks’ MSS offerings across service and product quality, sales, implementation and support compared to the competition.

  • Secureworks has lower visibility compared with competitors for buyers in continental Europe and the Asia/Pacific region for MSSs.
  • Support for customer access to raw logs via the Secureworks portal for investigation and reporting is limited. Customer that require great access to logs, and long-term retention for compliance requirements must store those on-premises or in their cloud in third-party log management appliances supported by Secureworks.
  • Monitoring of SaaS solutions is still limited and support for CASB solutions is not available. Office 365 and Salesforce are supported. SaaS solutions such as Box, Dropbox, Workday and G Suite are not supported, although support for identity solutions like Okta and OneLogin are available.
  • Some Gartner small and midsize customers report frustration with Secureworks’ service delivery and account management, which they sometimes characterize as “we are too small to get attention.” Midsize and smaller enterprises should confirm how the service relationship and management process will operate and support their requirements.


Symantec, headquartered in Mountain View, California, is a security technology company that also offers a variety of security event monitoring services and complementary services as part of its Cyber Security Services business. Symantec has regional and country-level offices across the globe. It operates a global network of SOCs to provide 24/7 global coverage. Symantec offers a globally standardized approach to how its SOCs are operated, including their processes and procedures. Symantec’s Cyber Security Services core offerings address security event monitoring and response services. They also provide threat intelligence, and incident response and retainer services. All MSS agreements since July 2017 include the base terms and conditions providing MSS customers access to Symantec’s incident response retainer with zero upfront cost. Customers pay for use of the retainer on an as-needed basis. Symantec also offers Managed EDR, Managed Network Forensics, and Managed Cloud Defense using Symantec’s own technologies. A managed intrusion detection and prevention (IDP) service and a service providing security monitoring for OT and IoT devices are also available via technology partnerships and Symantec’s own technologies. Symantec’s delivery platform has been migrated from an on-premises data center to AWS, and includes its log collection and management, analytics, and customer portal.
Over the past 12 months, in addition to the delivery platform move to AWS, Symantec introduced several services that take advantage of the Symantec technology portfolio; for example, its Managed EDR service. It also implemented internal operational improvements to enhance the context around detected threats; for example, better mapping IP to host and speeding malware analysis and investigation.
Symantec MSSs should be on the shortlist for enterprise-size buyers who require regional support in North America, EMEA and Asia/Pacific, as well as existing Symantec technology customers who want managed security services for their existing technology investments.

  • Symantec has recently migrated its delivery platform to AWS. Beyond allowing it to take advantage of the benefits of using IaaS and AWS services, it will also enable Symantec to use AWS Regions to address data residency requirements, which was previously handled through contractual agreements.
  • Symantec’s technology portfolio for endpoint, network and cloud security are now being leveraged through standardized offerings in the MSS catalog. Existing Symantec customers using these technologies and looking for a service option will be well-supported, as will MSS buyers looking for a single provider for solutions and 24/7 monitoring and response.
  • Symantec is a visible competitor for MSS buyers in North America, EMEA and Asia/Pacific, and has good visibility as a shortlist candidate with Gartner clients.
  • Customers rate Symantec above average compared to competition for overall experience, evaluation and negotiations, integration and deployment, and service and support.

  • Buyers looking for a vulnerability management service to complement monitoring and response services will need to leverage a third-party service. Support for providing vulnerability assessment data for use in the security monitoring and response services is mixed. Qualys is presently supported through direct API integration; however, other vulnerability assessment vendors require manual upload of data.
  • Buyers that require their MSS hold an SOC certification should confirm the status. Symantec’s certifications are a work in progress as they transition from SOC 1 Type II to SOC 2. Certifications like ISO 27001 and PCI service provider are current as of the data of this research.
  • Symantec’s marketing of its Cyber Security Services is lagging competitors. Symantec is primarily known as a technology company and marketing of its MSS offering is not visible when compared to the software side of the business, e.g., there is visibility of technology partnerships with competing MSS firms, but no visibility of the same services being offered by Symantec MSS.


Trustwave, headquartered in Chicago, also has key offices in London, Singapore, Sydney and Tokyo among others. It delivers MSSs from 24/7 SOCs in Singapore; Manila, Philippines; Warsaw, Poland; Chicago; and Denver, Colorado; with a few other non-24/7 SOCs across the world. As part of the Singtel Group, Trustwave has a strong reach across EMEA and Asia/Pacific in addition to North America.
Trustwave offers conventional managed security services such as 24/7 security event monitoring and vulnerability management. In addition, Trustwave Managed Detection and Response (MDR) for Endpoints service offers managed Carbon Black and Cybereason EDR, as well as Darktrace for network detection and response. Managed threat hunting is also an option under the MDR set of services. Trustwave has made efforts to integrate the MDR service with its more established service areas both in terms of workflow and in offering pricing benefits to customers that choose both. The MDR service can address response actions via EDR that can be handled remotely in less than four hours with a certified digital forensics and incident response handler. For on-site incident response services via retainer, Trustwave offers consulting services through its SpiderLabs Digital Forensics and Incident Response Team. The SpiderLabs team within Trustwave also has an in-house threat intelligence capability that the company leverages for threat detection; but it does not sell this as a stand-alone feed to customers. Trustwave has several proprietary products that it can manage for customers (such as WAF, UTM, IDS), and it also supports several third-party technologies for monitoring and management.
Over the past 12 months, Trustwave has been integrating the stand-alone Singtel and other MSS businesses under the Trustwave brand, including a rebranding launch in December 2018. Trustwave introduced updates to its TrustKeeper portal in 2018, which is the primary delivery platform for the MSS. The logs and events from monitored/managed infrastructure elements are forwarded on to Trustwave’s multitenant platform that stores data in a number of its global SOC locations. Trustwave can enable local data residency by maintaining local instances of its portal within AWS Regions.
Trustwave is a good shortlist candidate for buyers, ranging from midsize enterprises to large, global enterprises, who are looking for standard managed security services with some additional advanced capabilities like threat hunting and MDR, and other complementary services.

  • The updated TrustKeeper portal offers good role-based access, language localization, custom report/dashboard creation capabilities and visibility into ticket workflow. Integration of the service workflow with customers’ Slack and ServiceNow environments is a positive feature, particularly for large organizations with dispersed teams.
  • Trustwave has a strong threat intelligence capability through its SpiderLabs team, and good professional services offerings that complement its MSS and MDR offerings.
  • The vendor’s threat detection capability is focused on analytics that delivers use cases based on a combination of Trustwave proprietary technology and TensorFlow libraries.
  • Trustwave places an emphasis on global consistency in service delivery and leveraging a point of delivery (POD) concept to provide more customer-specific attention and a vertical focus.

  • Though Trustwave supports CASBs and collects data through native APIs in Microsoft Azure and AWS, it still lags some competitors in offering cloud-specific MSSs like vulnerability and asset management, container security and cloud security posture management.
  • Though Trustwave has a global presence, its go-to-market approach in Singapore and Australia still needs better alignment with the global Trustwave platform strategy. The organizational realignment that happened in 2018 is yet to be fully realized in the field.
  • Trustwave’s MDR service is most visible via its managed EDR offering. The managed network detection and response with Darktrace and other vendors is not as visible in the market. Customers desiring a full MDR service that spans endpoints and network security need to confirm with Trustwave how it can support that requirement from both a supported vendor and integration-of-service perspective.
  • Trustwave customers reported general satisfaction, but below-average marks compared to the competition across overall experience, evaluation and contracting, integration and deployment, and service support and product capabilities.


Verizon is a telecommunications company headquartered in Basking Ridge, New Jersey, with regional offices in Reading, U.K., and Sydney. Verizon offers a range of MSSs and security consulting services using a global network of SOCs. Local business hours (i.e., “follow the sun”) SOCs are located in Ashburn, Virginia; Dortmund, Germany; and Canberra, Australia. It also has an SOC in Luxembourg that is dedicated to customers with specific data sovereignty requirements. The vendor’s 24/7 MSS SOCs are located in Chennai and Hyderabad, India. Customer data is stored in operations centers located in the U.S., Europe and Australia.
Verizon’s Unified Security Portal (USP) provides single-portal access across all services and capabilities for customers. Verizon’s MSS platform includes log management capabilities allowing clients to search 90 days of stored logs. Verizon’s MSS delivery platform includes open-source, proprietary, and commercial technologies including Splunk security data analytics, Elasticsearch for log search, and Verizon’s proprietary correlation engine and Local Event Collector (LEC). MSS pricing is based on the volume of log data ingested per day, with distinct pricing for advanced detection services. For services based on endpoint detection and response products, the pricing is per endpoint; and for network analytics, it’s per the number of flows ingested. Verizon also offers additional services like an incident response retainer, Autonomous Threat Hunting (via the Niddel acquisition), and the Verizon Risk Report (VRR).
In 2018, Verizon introduced the Verizon Risk Report, a new service to augment its MSS offerings. VRR provides daily quantitative assessments of a customer’s security posture based on Verizon threat intelligence, and oriented toward security portfolio decision makers. Verizon also acquired ProtectWise in March 2019, which provides network traffic analytics and forensics capabilities.
Enterprises and public-sector organizations, including existing Verizon network customers, should consider Verizon if they require well-established global or region-specific MSSs.

  • Verizon offers a broad range of additional security services including VRR, distributed denial of service (DDoS) protection and incident response services, among others like the Autonomous Threat Hunting service.
  • The portal offers excellent capabilities for searching incidents and logs to support investigations, extensive roles and access controls for portal users, as well as strong visualization and dashboard customization. The portal provides flexible and comprehensive log searching capabilities to end users, and there is extensive and granular support for defining and managing portal roles.
  • Verizon offers several services that support advanced threat detection and response, with an emphasis on network-based capabilities.
  • Verizon has good visibility with Gartner clients for MSSs.

  • Some MSS portal functions lag those of competitors or require additional service levels to access. Users must request reports for predefined compliance schemes from the Verizon SOC, and the portal offers MSS customers limited threat intelligence. Greater access to these capabilities requires the Verizon Risk Report services.
  • Verizon supports data residency requirements with its own resources in Asia/Pacific, Europe and North America. Customers with these requirements in Africa and the Middle East and in Latin America and South America must engage with Verizon partners in the region to support them, or leverage Verizon’s Managed SIEM offering.
  • Verizon relies primarily on Netskope CASB to monitor SaaS environments, although Cisco Cloudlock CASB is also supported. Only Office 365 is supported natively (via APIs). If other SaaS applications are able to generate and forward their own logs and events, they can be monitored.
  • Customer feedback for Verizon is satisfactory, but below average compared to its competition in areas at the beginning of the buying and onboarding stages, such as preselection activities, negotiations, and integration and deployment.


Wipro is headquartered in Bangalore, India and has 24/7 SOCs in India (8), Europe (2), North America (4) and the Middle East (1). As a global IT services provider, Wipro has a significant incumbent customer base to which it can position its MSS offering.
Wipro’s standardized security monitoring service is based on IBM QRadar (delivered in a federated, on-premises model) and Demisto SOAR (powering automation in its SOCs). In addition, Wipro offers vulnerability assessment management services through a partnership with Qualys. Data from vulnerability assessment scans is made available to customers through Wipro’s MSS portal. Wipro also offers advanced MSS offerings for IDS/IPS, network traffic analytics, network forensics, EDR, deception, breach and attack simulation, and SaaS monitoring via a robust set of technology partnerships. The company also offers several types of professional services to complement its MSS offering, such as incident response, threat hunting, forensics and malware analysis.
Over the past 12 months, Wipro has focused on internal operational improvements, and service measurement and reporting.
Wipro is a good fit for customers that are looking to consume a range of services (spanning consulting, implementation and outsourcing) from the same provider. Incumbent Wipro customers and organizations looking for more flexibility in their service approaches should consider Wipro as a shortlist candidate.

  • Wipro offers a good combination of standard and advanced managed security service offerings, leveraging its strong partnerships with established and emerging security technology vendors.
  • Wipro can cater to regional data residency requirements due to its focus on local log collection and analytics, as well as a strong global network of SOCs.
  • Wipro has strong incident detection and response SLAs that are above average in the industry.

  • Wipro’s MSS portal is still not as user-friendly as the competition — customer self-service options to manage the state and status of an event are limited.
  • Despite the use of on-premises QRadar to store customer logs and perform detections, the Wipro portal offers limited access to logs by customers. There is a limited search capability, or users can request log reports from the SOC. Users with sufficient expertise can be given access to the QRadar console for direct searching.
  • Wipro has low visibility with Gartner clients and MSS buyers.

Vendors Added and Dropped

We review and adjust our inclusion criteria for Magic Quadrants as markets change. As a result of these adjustments, the mix of vendors in any Magic Quadrant may change over time. A vendor’s appearance in a Magic Quadrant one year and not the next does not necessarily indicate that we have changed our opinion of that vendor. It may be a reflection of a change in the market and, therefore, changed evaluation criteria, or of a change of focus by that vendor.


Alert Logic


BT, DXC Technology, HCL Technology and Orange Business Services.

Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria

To qualify for inclusion in this Magic Quadrant, managed security services providers must:
  • Offer remotely delivered 24/7 security event monitoring and response services, delivered via a common, shared delivery platform that is owned, hosted and maintained by the provider, which is consumed by at least 70% of their customers; however:
    • Customers that consume services that are not delivered remotely, e.g., on the customer premises, or that are delivered remotely on a one-to-one basis per customer, are not applicable.
    • Customers that do not consume security event monitoring services, e.g., technology-only and device-management-only customers, are not applicable.
    • The delivery platform must include the following capabilities at a minimum: log/data collection and management; analytics for threat detection use cases; reporting for compliance use cases and service management; case management and ticketing; and a web-based portal to consume and interface with services. However:
      • Providers’ platforms that lack multitenancy characteristics (e.g., leverage common compute, storage, software and management) will not be included.
      • Providers that deliver their services in a one-to-one model (e.g., leveraging a customer’s own SIEM solution), on a per-customer basis, even if the technology to deliver the service is hosted for the customer by the provider, e.g., managed and hosted SIEM solution, will not be included.
      • Delivery platforms can be proprietary, leverage third-party technology (e.g., commercial off-the-shelf [COTS]), or a combination of the two. Providers that leverage a delivery platform that is owned, hosted, operated and maintained by a third party to deliver MSSs will not be included.
      • Customer interface options beyond a web-based portal, such as real-time chat, war rooms and mobile applications are not required, but may be considered if they enhance the value proposition.
  • Offer at least two of the following services that highly complement security event monitoring and response offerings:
    • Incident response services (e.g., via a retainer with the buyer)
    • Threat intelligence services (not just machine-readable threat intelligence [MRTI] or reselling third-party MRTI)
    • Vulnerability assessment and management services
    • Managed detection and response (e.g., managed endpoint detection and response)
  • Have an SOC in two or more regions where security event monitoring and response services are fully supported and delivered. However:
    • SOCs specifically designated for delivering services other than security event monitoring and response, such as providing only technology administration and management, will not be included.
    • SOCs that deliver security event monitoring but are dedicated to a specific customer base (e.g., government-only customers), while not specifically included for regional scope requirements, may be considered if they enhance the value proposition.
  • Provide evidence via region-specific marketing materials of sales, either directly or via a channel, being performed in three or more regions (North America, Latin and South America, Europe, Middle East and Africa, and Asia/Pacific).
  • Have at least 500 customers globally consuming remotely delivered security event monitoring and response services as defined previously, with a minimum of 100 customers in each of two or more regions (North America, Europe, Asia/Pacific, Middle East and Africa, and Latin and South America).
  • Have minimum annual revenue of $50 million that is generated from shared, remote security event monitoring and response services. Revenue generated by services such as technology administration and management, consulting, professional services, and technology reselling are not to be included in the above threshold.
  • In-scope service offerings and technology (e.g., a delivery platform) features and functionality must be generally available (and being sold, if a service) to MSS buyers as of 1 November 2018.
  • Be service providers that Gartner determines to be significant vendors in the market because of their market presence or service innovation.

Evaluation Criteria

Ability to Execute

Product/Service refers to the services offered, and their capabilities, for security event monitoring and response, such as the delivery platform that includes log collection and management, analysis, and customer interface methods. It also includes highly complementary services, such as vulnerability management, threat intelligence, incident response, and managed detection and response services.
Overall Viability (Business Unit, Financial, Strategy, Organization) includes an assessment of the organization’s overall financial health, as well as the financial and practical success of the business unit. It views the likelihood of the organization to continue to offer and invest in the product as well as the product position in the current portfolio.
Sales Execution/Pricing addresses the service provider’s success in the market and its capabilities in presales activities. This also includes MSS revenue, pricing and the overall effectiveness of the sales channel. The level of interest from Gartner clients is also considered.
Market Responsiveness and Track Record evaluates the match of the MSS offerings to the functional requirements stated by buyers at the time of acquisition. It also evaluates the MSSP’s track record in delivering new functions when the market needs them.
Marketing Execution evaluates the service provider’s ability to effectively communicate the value and competitive differentiation of its MSS offering to its target buyer.
Customer Experience evaluates the service delivery to customers. The evaluation includes ease of onboarding, the quality and effectiveness of monitoring and response activities, and reporting and problem resolution. This criterion is assessed by surveys of vendor-provided reference customers, Gartner’s Peer Insights, as well as by feedback from Gartner clients that are using the MSSP’s services, or that have completed competitive evaluations of the MSSP’s offerings.
Operations addresses the MSSP’s service delivery resources, such as infrastructure, staffing and SOC operations. It also includes evaluation of external operations reviews, and relevant certifications and attestations.

Table 1: Ability to Execute Evaluation Criteria

Enlarge Table
Evaluation Criteria
Product or Service
Overall Viability
Sales Execution/Pricing
Market Responsiveness/Record
Marketing Execution
Customer Experience
Source: Gartner (May 2019)

Completeness of Vision

Market Understanding involves the MSSP’s ability to understand buyers’ needs and to translate them into services and capabilities. MSSPs that show the highest degree of market understanding are adapting to customer requirements. MSSPs with market-leading vision are investing in expertise and technology to monitor and analyze a customer’s diverse range of environments (i.e., on-premises, IaaS and SaaS), as well as the external threat environment to better understand the sources, motives, targets and methods of attackers. They are also developing and introducing services that support large-scale data collection; advanced analytics, including statistical and behavioral functions; and monitoring of new data sources. The goal of these capabilities is to more effectively reduce the mean time to detect a threat, and also to drive the mean time to respond to a threat for customers. MSSPs are also keeping pace with regulatory requirements customers may face across different geographies.
Marketing Strategy evaluates the clear, differentiated messaging consistently communicated internally and externalized through social media, advertising, customer programs, and positioning statements; and is tailored to the specific client drivers and market conditions in the MSS market.
Sales Strategy addresses selling that uses the appropriate networks including: direct and indirect sales, marketing, service, and communication. It includes partners that extend the scope and depth of market reach, expertise, technologies, services and their customer base.
Offering (Product) Strategy evaluates the vendor’s approach to product development and delivery that emphasizes functionality and delivery options as they map to current and emerging requirements for MSSs. Development plans are also evaluated.
Business Model covers the design, logic and execution of the organization’s business proposition to achieve continued success.
Vertical/Industry Strategy evaluates the strategy to direct resources (sales, product and development), skills, and products to meet the specific needs of individual market segments, including verticals.
Innovation refers to the service provider’s strategy and ability to develop new MSS capabilities and delivery models to uniquely meet critical customer requirements.
Geographic Strategy evaluates the vendor’s strategy to direct resources, skills and offerings to meet the specific needs of geographies outside the “home” or native geography, either directly or through partners, channels and subsidiaries, as appropriate for that geography and market.

Table 2: Completeness of Vision Evaluation Criteria

Enlarge Table
Evaluation Criteria
Market Understanding
Marketing Strategy
Sales Strategy
Offering (Product) Strategy
Business Model
Not Rated
Vertical/Industry Strategy
Geographic Strategy
Source: Gartner (May 2019)

Quadrant Descriptions


Each of the service providers in the Leaders quadrant has significant mind share among organizations looking to buy MSSs as a discrete offering. These providers typically receive positive reports on service and performance from Gartner clients. MSSPs in the Leaders quadrant are typically appropriate options for enterprises requiring comprehensive portal-based access for interfacing with the service (e.g., responding to alerts, incident management, workflow, reporting, asset and access management, and managing other procured services, like incident response and vulnerability management) along with interaction with the MSSP for analyst expertise and advice.


In the Challengers quadrant, Gartner customers are more likely to encounter MSSs that are offered as components of an IT or network service provider’s (NSP’s) other telecommunications, outsourcing or consulting services. Although an MSS is not a leading service offering for this type of vendor, MSSs in these markets have a stronger Ability to Execute.


Companies in the Visionaries quadrant have demonstrated the ability to turn a strong focus on managed security into high-quality service offerings for the MSS market. These service providers are often strong contenders for enterprises that require access to and support for “cutting edge” technology, flexible service delivery options and strong customer service. MSSPs in the Visionaries quadrant have less market coverage compared with vendors in the Leaders quadrant.

Niche Players

Niche Players are characterized by service offerings that are available primarily in specific market segments, or primarily as part of other service offerings. These service providers often tailor MSS offerings to specific requirements of the markets they serve. This quadrant is also characterized by providers that are newer, or that have expanded beyond local and regional markets to the global MSS market, and are maturing their delivery capabilities and offerings.


Organizations should not use this Magic Quadrant in isolation as a tool for selecting providers. Gartner provides a range of toolkits and geographically contextual research to assist buyers in correctly scoping and administering an MSS selection process. MSS buyers are increasingly challenged to identify and select the best provider for their needs. Prior to starting the process to outsource security operations to a service provider, it is critical buyers understand their desired outcomes, use cases and requirements. (See “Foundational Elements to Get Right When Selecting a Managed Security Service Provider” and “How to Work With an MSSP to Improve Security.”)
When goals, use cases and requirements are not focused on prior to engaging with an MSS, an all too common result is dissatisfaction with the provider and MSS experience. Based on feedback from Gartner clients and MSS buyers over the past 12 months, the most common elements of dissatisfaction often stem from misaligned expectations and the scope of the services provided.
It is important that prospective MSS buyers focus on the outcomes they require to ensure they purchase the right services offered by the right type of providers. Buyers that require 24/7 threat detection and response use cases should highly weight an MSSP’s capabilities in those areas, in addition to its in-house threat research and intelligence capabilities. Complementary services like incident response retainers may be of importance too. MSS buyers who have requirements related to specific technologies and capabilities should focus on providers who are better at providing customization, where appropriate, in addition to standardized services.
As a result of the requirements of Gartner clients and the direction of the MSS market, Gartner has made changes to the inclusion criteria in this year’s Magic Quadrant. Comparisons to previous years is not advised (nor is a year-over-year comparison of vendor position in the Magic Quadrant generally advised). Additionally, vendors that no longer meet the inclusion criteria should still be considered when there is a need for a partner in specific regions, as well as for highly customized and specific offerings focusing on technology deployment and integration.

Market Overview

The MSS market is mature, with an estimated market size of $10.7 billion in 2018. The market continues to adapt to the challenges facing organizations around:
  • An increasingly complex IT environment that includes SaaS and IaaS, and the expansion into nontraditional IT domains
  • The growing hostile external landscape
  • The ongoing issues of a lack of talent and expertise in security
  • The needs of less mature organizations that are likely to have only ever implemented preventative security controls
These challenges are driving organization’s to focus on and improve their threat detection and response capabilities. For many organizations, the use of an MSSP enables achieving that goal.
The MSS market has a set of providers whose core business is often not security-focused, such as IT outsourcers, system integrators and telecommunications providers. For such providers, there is an increasing focus on maturing and expanding their offerings to meet changing market demands. Alongside the pure-play security service providers, there are now hundreds of smaller, geographically focused MSSPs and MDR service providers around the world offering detection-led and highly competitive services. Every week a new provider is visible in the market; either a net new provider or a provider in an adjacent market that has added managed security services. These services vary according to:
  • The core business they operate under (e.g., managed IT services or IT outsourcing, system integration, telecommunications, security technology or pure-play security services)
  • Geographic and vertical markets being targeted
  • The targeted buyer by size and maturity
This Magic Quadrant reflects the requirements of Gartner clients as well as the evolution of the global MSS market. Market trends, which are discussed in more detail below, include:
  • The adoption of core security capabilities where historic investment has been weak, for example vulnerability management, threat intelligence and incident response.
  • Moving beyond monitoring of only on-premises technologies as more organization adopt SaaS and IaaS, as well as the move by many organization to include security event monitoring and response services for OT and IoT under the remit of security operations.
  • Increasing segmentation of MSSPs focused on delivering a broad portfolio of managed security services to address the wide range of needs by larger enterprises versus those who are focused on core security operations activities.
  • Portals as the primary interface with MSSPs, but delivery models being expanded to include other channels, like mobile devices.
  • The inclusion of direct response to security events and issues and MSS provider’s adoption of emerging technologies, like SOAR, which have the potential to transform how MSSPs deliver services in the future.
There are other adjacent markets providing security services to address the core use case for 24/7 threat detection and response. Increasingly MSSPs are pivoting to compete with these markets to address buyer demands by offering the following services:
  • Managed detection and response services: Organizations are looking to address a lack of 24/7 threat detection and response — especially where there is lower maturity, and little to no investment in detection technologies and the experts needed to use those tools and perform incident response activities. Thus, MDR services are filling the demand (see “Market Guide for Managed Detection and Response Services”). Midsize enterprises are gravitating to MDR when looking for a turnkey service that fits their needs. More mature organizations with defined security operations teams look to MDR to fill gaps in their coverage, e.g., through services like managed EDR or threat hunting. MSSPs have reacted to these needs by offering services primarily focused on managed EDR and threat hunting, as well as expanded incident response services. Many of these services are customized; few are standard offerings integrated into the core MSS business.
  • Remote SIEM solution management and co-management: Larger enterprises that have invested in a SIEM solution with plans to build their own 24/7 operations, or organizations that are concerned about data residency requirements, are increasingly turning to MSSPs to take over management, operation and use of their SIEM solution. For some MSSPs, this is becoming their preferred approach as they may also be a technology reseller and integrator. Thus, they end up selling the SIEM solution to the customer, and then provide managed security services using the customer’s newly deployed SIEM solution. However, many organizations will look to an MSSP to help them when there are failed SIEM deployments, change in business direction, changing plans about building out their own SOC, and so on. Rather than lose a large deal, some MSSPs are increasingly accommodating these buyers even though it does not align with their preferred delivery model (i.e., use the MSSPs standard delivery platform).
  • Customer-owned SOC: In some geographies like the Middle East and India, regulatory requirements drive buyers toward an on-premises SOC. In other geographies, on-premises SOCs are driven less by regulations and are more about the risk tolerance of the organization, its scale and nuances of its business that makes it avoid outsourcing services to an MSSP. However, building an SOC is not a small endeavor and requires expertise to build, then operate and run an SOC. Many MSSPs are also offering a service where the SOC may be fully managed on-premises by the MSSP, or a hybrid model where some remote services are provided from a shared customer SOC alongside some on-premises staff.

Core Services for Detection and Response, Against a Broadening MSS Market

A MSS looks significantly different now compared to what it was just five years ago. At the core of most MSSP services portfolios is 24/7 security event monitoring and response, of varying degrees of maturity and sophistication. This will not change. Organizations have awoken to the need for detection and response capabilities, underpinned by continuous monitoring and visibility, to complement their investment in prevention and blocking technologies. (See Figure 2. Adaptive Attack Protection in “Seven Imperatives to Adopt a CARTA Strategic Approach”).
In addition to security event monitoring and response capabilities, the need for good security hygiene or “the security basics” is also being recognized by many organizations. Capabilities like vulnerability management and the use of threat intelligence are still challenging for many organizations. Vulnerability management is evolving toward a risk-based approach, but few MSSPs are adapting to this shift. Most still support basic vulnerability scanning. (See “Implement a Risk-Based Approach to Vulnerability Management.”)
Once, the focus of a security monitoring service was to ensure a threat was simply detected and alerted to. Now, being alerted to a threat is no longer sufficient for many organizations. Once a threat is identified, organizations are looking to service providers to take on a more active role. For some organizations that have an existing security team and internal incident response and handling expertise, only an alert may still be acceptable. Even so, the expectation now is that the alert will be context-rich relative to both the threat (e.g., broad-based malware or targeted attack, or part of a known malware campaign or threat actor) and the customer’s vertical and organization. (For example, was the targeted asset critical to the buyer? Were there unpatched vulnerabilities on the targeted asset? What’s the “blast radius” of the attack inside the organization?)
For other organization that have little to no security team and a lower security operations maturity, the expectations are that the MSSP will do more than just issue an alert and let the customer fend for itself. They need the MSSP to take an active role in analyzing, triaging, and then disrupting or containing the threat, i.e., they need the MSS to act as a first-level incident responder for them. The feedback from customers surveyed as part of this Magic Quadrant indicates that 49% of them still only get alerts as the primary form of response from their MSSP. However, 43% indicated the MSSP is taking a more active role in the response to a detected threat, either helping with containment (e.g., a more MDR-style service) or getting involved in the end-to-end detection through to containment and remediation (usually when the buyer has a broader ITO agreement with the MSSP).
If an attack was not detected and contained quickly enough, then it is important to have an incident response retainer that can provide targeted incident response services as well as support in the event of a potentially large incident. (See “Market Guide for Digital Forensics and Incident Response Services.”) Buyers are increasingly looking to their MSS to offer these capabilities as part of a more end-to-end service delivery model.
Response services beyond those described previously are being adopted by organizations on an as-needed basis to address gaps in their capabilities or to align to organizational strategy to leverage outsourcing providers where feasible. For some buyers, technology management is still an important element of managed security services. But that need is being filled by a wider variety of services providers depending on the type of technology and the delivery of the technology. We see the commoditization of technology management reaching its peak. Firewalls are increasingly being managed by telecommunications service providers as a network device. Endpoint protection is being managed by managed services providers (MSPs). And, the adoption of cloud-delivered security solutions (aka security as a service), like SWGs and SEGs, firewalls and DNS security, further erodes the value of managed technology services for buyers. (For example, when using security as a service from the cloud, the need for a provider to perform health, performance and availability monitoring, as well as software upgrades goes away as it’s now the technology provider’s responsibility.) Depending on their core verticals, MSSPs are being left to perform policy management or to expand into technology management for technologies that are not commonly delivered “as a service.” Gartner clients indicate it is challenging to find, afford and retain the expertise to operate and use technologies like SIEM, EDR and network traffic analytics [NTA] solutions.
Increasingly, the portfolios of many MSSPs are quite extensive as they look for opportunities to expand and stay “sticky” with buyers. This has both positive and negative implications for MSS buyers. For those organizations looking to outsource a wide variety of security operations, extensive MSSP portfolios are beneficial. However, this choice also must be tempered by concerns about whether an MSSP will become more of a generalist considering the broad range of technologies that it may need to manage and monitor. (It is estimated that an MSSP has to potentially support hundreds of different vendors and solutions.)

Threats No Longer Target Only On-Premises IT

As organizations move to the cloud, IT environments become more complex because of SaaS and IaaS. These cloud environments also increase the attack surface for organizations due to their complexity. Even capabilities like vulnerability management and log management in these environments require new skills and expertise that are not readily available in the market. MSSPs are being pushed to address the threats against these environments, but the variability across providers is still quite large. The monitoring of public cloud services — specifically AWS and Azure — is maturing, with basic security event monitoring available from many MSSPs. But monitoring other cloud providers, as well as offering services oriented specifically at other aspects of cloud environments (like monitoring for threats against containerization and microservices) are in their infancy.
Over the last couple of years, many MSSPs have improved their capabilities around integrating with, and consuming log and data outputs from, SaaS vendors, especially the common solutions like Office 365, Salesforce and Workday. However, many MSSPs are just applying basic use cases to SaaS (for example, looking for brute force attacks on accounts). Some MSSPs are addressing specific risks, like business email compromise (BEC), and looking for anomalous administrative activities; but this is not yet consistent. Outside of these SaaS applications, MSS buyers will be forced to leverage solutions like CASB and an MSS that can support the preferred CASB vendor. This will be needed at least until more API access from the SaaS vendors is available and MSSPs are able to support those vendors. (See “Market Guide for Cloud Access Security Brokers.”)
Operational technologies, like industrial control systems (ICSs) and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA), are increasingly being targeted.1 This is driving organizations to apply more scrutiny to their OT environments, and security operations teams are being pressed to expand their coverage into the OT environments, including asset and vulnerability visibility, and threat detection and response. (See “2018 Strategic Roadmap for Integrated IT and OT Security.”) IT is very different from OT, and the skills available in the market are nascent. Additional risks like safety, privacy and resiliency are also concerns (see “OT Security Best Practices”). MSSPs, similar to cloud service providers, are being pushed by buyers and existing customers to help address these risks. However, it is still very early days. There are a number of OT- and IoT-specific security technologies available on the market (see “Market Guide for Operational Technology Security”), and some MSSPs have established partnerships. Yet many of the services being introduced are highly customized and have not hit peak demand to warrant transferring them into formally established service offerings in MSS portfolios. Buyer due diligence is warranted to validate the claims being made by MSSPs about their available OT and IoT security services.

The Segmentation of the MSS Market Is Increasing

The MSS market is increasingly segmenting between those MSSPs that are primarily interested in buyers that need customization around technology and services, and those that just want a traditional shared delivery approach. Many MSSPs are aligning to one of these types of buyers, and less commonly are targeting both.
MSS buyers can generally be grouped as:
  • First timers and low-security operations maturity organizations — These are organizations that have never leveraged MSSs, or may be lower on the maturity curve. They tend to focus on 24/7 threat detection and response, and complementary services only, leaving the provider to use their preferred delivery approach (i.e., a delivery model and platform shared across the customer-base). This is where much of the MSS buyer market currently exists.
  • Digital transformers — These are organizations, usually large or very large global organizations, with varying degrees of security operations maturity, who need to improve their current security operations capabilities as part of larger, IT digital transformation projects, e.g., moving IT toward the use of cloud services. (See “Driving Digital Business Transformation for Industry Leadership: An Executive Perspective”).
  • SOC builders — These are organizations that want their own SOC, but lack the skills, expertise and time to build it themselves. These buyers may already own a SIEM solution. They want a provider that can build and support the SOC, either in a short-term model until the buyer can run it themselves (usually up to 12 months) or continually in an ongoing support capacity (fully outsourced or in a hybrid model).
  • High-maturity augmenters — These organizations have made significant investments in people, processes and technology in their security operations, but are looking for opportunities to hybridize the operations by leveraging services providers.
  • Compliance-focused buyers — These organizations simply want to meet the requirements of a common compliance standard to satisfy auditors, customers or trading regulations.
System integrators and IT outsourcers are increasingly targeting the digital transformers and SOC builders. These target organizations have specific technology-based approaches in mind and are looking for a partner that can provide assessments via consulting activities; recommend, architect, sell, and implement buyer-preferred technologies; and then operate and run those technologies for the buyers. These projects tend to be large-scale, cross-IT, multiyear efforts where the scale of activities (including MSSs) align to the provider. The first timers and high-maturity augmenters who make up the majority of Gartner clients want an outcome that provides monitoring, detection and response as a service. This is usually achieved through the use of shared services that have been optimized for delivery efficiency and are at lower price points compared to one-off and customized services.

Mobile Apps Are Emerging, but Portals Are Still Important

The number of MSSPs also offering a mobile application has increased over the past twelve months (e.g., Atos, CenturyLink, IBM and Secureworks). This is expected given the always-connected nature of organizations and the needs of multiple personas. For example, a CISO or CIO who may travel frequently and is not tethered to a laptop will benefit from any-time access to the status of the services from the MSSP. Security operations analysts who may participate in an on-call rotation as part of the incident response capability will benefit from the expediency when something is alerted to afterhours. They can get their phone, open an app and start to review the incident details, rather than having to find their laptop, connect and log into the MSSP portal, and locate the case or ticket. Obviously both use cases allow for more frequent access, if not interaction, with the MSSP. Mobile apps are not yet ubiquitous and the experience varies widely, so validating the mobile app experience of the provider, if important, should factor into the requirements for selecting an MSSP.
Portals to interface with an MSSP have not disappeared, nor has their usage. MSS buyers surveyed for this Magic Quadrant indicated 40% still use the MSSP portal daily and 26% use it at least weekly. The experience across MSSPs still varies though in light of this usage by customers. Magic Quadrant reference buyers in this research were generally neutral or just satisfied with the capabilities of their MSSP’s portal to support the day-to-day use of the portal to interface with the MSSP services. MSSPs who have been in this market for many years still offer the most mature portal experiences. Providers in markets like IT outsourcing tend to put less emphasis on the portal, favoring the portal to be used for service management above offering SIEM-like features that are required by security teams. (See “Critical Capabilities for Security Information and Event Management.”)

MSS Is Starting to Be SOAR-Powered

It’s still early days for SOAR, but the promise of improving the efficiencies and consistencies of SOC activities, as well as being able to offer more customized processes to MSS customers is compelling. (See “Innovation Insight for Security Orchestration, Automation and Response” and “Preparing Your Security Operations for Orchestration and Automation Tools.”) Some MSSPs have adopted SOAR technologies in earnest and have embedded them at the core of their delivery platforms. Based on conversations with SOAR technology vendors and MSSPs, we expect most MSSPs to adopt and embed SOAR capabilities over the next three years.
So what does this mean for MSS buyers? SOAR is not a panacea for MSS buyers. As this stage, SOAR technologies will be used by MSSPs to make their analysts more efficient and more productive (and happy) by removing mundane activities. If properly leveraged, customer experiences with their MSSs should improve when it comes to consistency and repeatability of agreed processes. Theoretically, the detection of threats should improve if MSSP SOC analysts are given more time to investigate and triage suspect events (e.g., reducing the number of false positive alerts to customers). In the future, automated response actions initiated by the MSS to the customer’s own technologies to reduce the mean time to respond might be a reality (but that’s in the infancy stage right now).


Evaluation Criteria Definitions

Ability to Execute

Product/Service: Core goods and services offered by the vendor for the defined market. This includes current product/service capabilities, quality, feature sets, skills and so on, whether offered natively or through OEM agreements/partnerships as defined in the market definition and detailed in the subcriteria.
Overall Viability: Viability includes an assessment of the overall organization’s financial health, the financial and practical success of the business unit, and the likelihood that the individual business unit will continue investing in the product, will continue offering the product and will advance the state of the art within the organization’s portfolio of products.
Sales Execution/Pricing: The vendor’s capabilities in all presales activities and the structure that supports them. This includes deal management, pricing and negotiation, presales support, and the overall effectiveness of the sales channel.
Market Responsiveness/Record: Ability to respond, change direction, be flexible and achieve competitive success as opportunities develop, competitors act, customer needs evolve and market dynamics change. This criterion also considers the vendor’s history of responsiveness.
Marketing Execution: The clarity, quality, creativity and efficacy of programs designed to deliver the organization’s message to influence the market, promote the brand and business, increase awareness of the products, and establish a positive identification with the product/brand and organization in the minds of buyers. This “mind share” can be driven by a combination of publicity, promotional initiatives, thought leadership, word of mouth and sales activities.
Customer Experience: Relationships, products and services/programs that enable clients to be successful with the products evaluated. Specifically, this includes the ways customers receive technical support or account support. This can also include ancillary tools, customer support programs (and the quality thereof), availability of user groups, service-level agreements and so on.
Operations: The ability of the organization to meet its goals and commitments. Factors include the quality of the organizational structure, including skills, experiences, programs, systems and other vehicles that enable the organization to operate effectively and efficiently on an ongoing basis.

Completeness of Vision

Market Understanding: Ability of the vendor to understand buyers’ wants and needs and to translate those into products and services. Vendors that show the highest degree of vision listen to and understand buyers’ wants and needs, and can shape or enhance those with their added vision.
Marketing Strategy: A clear, differentiated set of messages consistently communicated throughout the organization and externalized through the website, advertising, customer programs and positioning statements.
Sales Strategy: The strategy for selling products that uses the appropriate network of direct and indirect sales, marketing, service, and communication affiliates that extend the scope and depth of market reach, skills, expertise, technologies, services and the customer base.
Offering (Product) Strategy: The vendor’s approach to product development and delivery that emphasizes differentiation, functionality, methodology and feature sets as they map to current and future requirements.
Business Model: The soundness and logic of the vendor’s underlying business proposition.
Vertical/Industry Strategy: The vendor’s strategy to direct resources, skills and offerings to meet the specific needs of individual market segments, including vertical markets.
Innovation: Direct, related, complementary and synergistic layouts of resources, expertise or capital for investment, consolidation, defensive or pre-emptive purposes.
Geographic Strategy: The vendor’s strategy to direct resources, skills and offerings to meet the specific needs of geographies outside the “home” or native geography, either directly or through partners, channels and subsidiaries as appropriate for that geography and market.

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